Chapter Fourteen: Geniuses, Inventors, and Society
Invention and innovation
制度/Grade Class Assigned by Ability
天才教育/Education For High IQ or
Jerry and his wife Dorothy – a successful interior designer and strong
advocate for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics)
education – and their family believed that invention and innovation were
essential to American economic success and vitality. The Lemelsons
realized that in order for the US to remain a world leader in economic
growth and technology there was a great need to place a strong emphasis on
invention and innovation.
9. Edwin Land
Connecticut physicist and inventor Edwin Land didn’t invent
photography, of course, but he invented or perfected almost everything
else having to do with it. While a freshman at Harvard University in 1926,
he developed a new kind of polarizer by aligning and embedding crystals in
a plastic sheet, which he called Polaroid. Later, joined by other young
scientists, he applied the polarizing principle to light filters, optical
devices, and motion picture processes and founded the Polaroid Corporation
in the process. Holder of no fewer than 535 U.S. Patents, Land is probably
best known for developing the first self-developing camera, making it
possible to embarrass your friends on the spot rather than having to wait
for the film to come back from the drug store before humiliating them.
6. Jerome “Jerry” Hal Lemelson
What, you’ve never heard of Jerome Lemelson? Well, you have now, for he
was one of the most prolific inventors in history, with 605 patents to his
credit. What did he invent? Things like automated warehouses, industrial
robots, cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders,
camcorders and the magnetic tape drive used in Sony’s Walkman tape
players. Lemelson also filed patents in the fields of medical
instrumentation, cancer detection and treatment, diamond coating
technologies, and consumer electronics and television. He was probably
best known, however, as a tireless advocate for the rights of independent
inventors, which made him a controversial and even much loathed figure by
patent attorneys and some of the larger companies whose noses he tweaked,
but a champion of the independent inventor’s community.
5. George Westinghouse
Though it was Edison that got most of the credit, it’s hard to argue
that in many ways Westinghouse’s contributions were almost as great as
Edison’s. Certainly it was his electrical system, which used alternating
current based (a result of the work of Nikola Tesla, by the way), that
ultimately prevailed over Edison’s insistence on direct current and paved
the way for the modern power grid. But Westinghouse wasn’t a one-hit
wonder; before he bested Edison with his AC power system, he invented the
railway air brake, which did much to improve the safety of the American
railway system. Like Edison, he also had an experimental streak which
induced him play around with a perpetual motion machine. It didn’t quite
work, of course (largely due to the fact that such a machine would violate
the laws of physics) but you couldn’t blame him for trying. In any case, a
prolific inventor and engineer with 361 patents to his credit,
Westinghouse easily rounds out the top five candidates.
4. Alexander Graham Bell
You don’t often see the inventor of the telephone finish this high on
such a list, but when one looks at the accomplishments the man was
responsible for during his seventy five years on earth, it seems
impossible not to include him in the top five. Though most famous for the
telephone (which came about as a result of his early work with the deaf)
not many people know he also invented devices that did everything from
locate icebergs and detect minor hearing problems (an audiometer) to
finding hidden treasure (he invented the modern metal detector). He even
tried his hand at eugenics, built hydrofoils and worked on early
airplanes, demonstrating quite a range of interests. And that copy of
National Geographic Magazine you’ve been meaning to get around to one of
these days? Thank Mister Bell for that as well, for he was one of the
founding members of the National Geographic Foundation way back in 1888.
Quite a résumé by any standard, if you ask me.
3. Thomas Edison
What? The most prolific inventor in modern history, with over a
thousand patents to his credit, not number one? The inventor of the light
bulb, the phonograph, the motion picture camera and the man who
electrified New York City—literally—not top dog? Impossible! Actually,
while Edison was a gifted man, many of his better known inventions were
developed by others working for him or in collaboration with an entire
design team, making him responsible for their development rather than
their chief inventor. He also had a nasty tendency to renege on contracts
and claim credit for other people’s work, but then nobody is perfect.
However, even if he wasn’t personally responsible for everything that came
out of his shop at Menlo Park and was at time integrity challenged, he was
the master of R & D and oversaw the creation and production of many of the
great inventions of the nineteenth century, earning him, if not the number
one spot, at least a top five showing.
2. Nikola Tesla
Though largely unknown during his lifetime and a man who died in
relative obscurity (and as something of a reclusive mad scientist at
that), the brilliant Serb—who is enjoying a resurgence in popularity
lately—was probably more responsible for the birth of commercial
electricity than any man in history. While Tesla’s patents and theoretical
work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electric power
systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the
AC motor which helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution, he is
probably best known for his work in the field of electromagnetism. He also
contributed in varying degrees to the science of robotics, laid the
foundation for the development of remote control, radar, and computer
science, and even helped in the expansion of ballistics, nuclear physics,
and theoretical physics. Some people also believe he developed
anti-gravity, teleportation, and even death rays, but that’s a bit more
difficult to substantiate. In any case, with 111 patents to his credit, he
was genuinely one of the finest and most innovative minds in history whose
recognition has been long in coming.
We owe much of our standard of living to great entrepreneurs and
inventors. These folks do more to make life easier and better than
anything else. Not that laws and labor contracts and epic court decisions
have been insignificant, but inventions are what has gotten us out of the
mud and away from the open flame, and the mystery disease that took the
lives of our children. Advances in travel and communication have made it
harder for injustice to hide and thrive and have given the individual more
personal freedom. It will be harder in the future for authority figures
and wrongdoers to hide anything they do. Our economy will be lifted out of
its current holding pattern only by finding better ways of doing things,
especially in the field of energy production, storage, consumption, etc.
and in its effect on transportation. We will also need to restore the work
ethic and quit expecting someone to give us what we are too lazy to work
for. Here a few examples we can learn from.
Nikolai Tesla. Genius in the field of electricity. Steve Jobs, the
Apple genius. I love my iphone.
Dr. Michael DeBakey, Cardiologist who pioneered bypass surgery. How
many lives has this procedure saved? Clarence Birdseye. Frozen foods. We
take it for granted today. How could a restaurant or a grocery store
operate without it? Dr. Jonas Salk found the cure for polio. I remember
taking the sugar cubes. Henry Ford, pioneer of the auto. I know he had his
own private police force to beat up striking workers, but without Ford
there may never have been cars and certainly no good jobs on the assembly
line. I love Walter Reuther too, but Ford deserves a great deal of credit.
Remember he competed with General Motors and last time I looked his
company is comparing favorably there.
George Westinghouse. Another genius inventor. Howard Hughes. His father
invented the rotary drill bit and son advanced aviation technology and had
the bold vision to move forward even in the face of those who wanted him
out of the picture. He made a movie or two while he was at it. Charles
Goodyear. The vulcanization of rubber. Very little doesn’t move on rubber
covered wheels. Even airplanes have to have them to take off and land.
Robert Goddard. The first significant rocket engineer. All rocket
science is built on his foundation. Albert Einstein. Mathematician,
scientist, was head and shoulders above everyone else in his time. I’m not
sure we have caught up to him yet.
Thomas Alva Edison. The phonograph. What would the music business be
without recorded sound???
The light bulb, and many other inventions that are useful to the
average person came from his genius. A big Wado (thanks).
Alexander Graham Bell gave us the telephone. I have lived without one
at times but it was pretty inconvenient. I still regret the breakup of
AT&T. It seemed less confusing when we had one phone company to hate. It
kept us united as a nation. But the telephone saves a lot of time. And as
great as email is, there is no substitute for live two way conversation.
5.5 Obscure Inventions and the People Who Made Them
Today would've marked the 150th birthday of Henry Ford. Like with the
automobile, Ford wasn’t the originator of his last name, but by the time
he passed away in 1947, he had made both into icons of industry.
Bogar Alonso Jul 30, 2013
Today would've marked the 150th birthday of Henry Ford. Like with the
automobile, Ford wasn’t the originator of his last name, but by the time
he passed away in 1947, he had made both into icons of industry. From
mostly humble beginnings, his fascination for how things work took him to
Detroit where he labored as an engineer for Edison Electric Illuminating
Company. While there, a different kind of bulb turned on for him: He would
try his hand at building a horseless carriage. Though his endeavor would
eventually prove triumphant, it didn’t come without some bumps in the
road. After building two successful car models, it would take just as many
failed companies to eventually stumble upon the one we know now: the Ford
Ford Motor would become the world’s biggest car company, but not without
its owner’s undying vision of efficiency, innovation―and some would
argue―cruelty. Even with his flaws, however, Henry Ford remains an
important figure in American history, automotive legacy, and late-night
To commemorate Ford's 150th birthday, we’ve chosen a group of inventors
who've also given us life-changing inventions but unlike Ford, have flown
under our collective radar. Here are their inventions and the stories of
their lives. (Also included is a bonus invention, the .5 in the equation:
a contraption that never quite took off).
1. THOMAS YOUNG - Contact Lenses
With a name far less cooler than that of Leonardo da Vinci, Archimedes, or
Nikola Tesla, Thomas Young is a forgotten father of invention. But his
life was far from being coma-inducing.
At the age of two, Young could already read, with the ability to handle a
complicated language like Latin by the tender age of six. His spirited
smarts allowed him to take Rene Descartes' rudimentary template for
contact lenses―glass tubes that would extend from a person’s cornea―and
transform them into liquid-filled contraptions that would simply cup the
When not designing a precursor to the modern-day contact lens, Young was
busy serving the world in countless ways. He helped reference 400
languages and their grammar systems, devised a mathematical function to
describe an object’s elasticity, and came up with the wave theory of
Calling him a genius might have been an understatement to a man of his
2. MARGARET E. KNIGHT - The Foldable Paper Bag
Photo courtesy of quirky.com.
In Margaret E. Knight’s era, most American women were seen as little more
than textile workers. Knight herself faced some of that prejudice, but she
never let it keep her from putting her analytical mind to good use.
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From a modest background, Knight spent a good portion of her life working
alongside other factory girls. But whenever there was a need for
improvement in a factory’s machinery, she would look for ways to address
the problem with a handy invention. While working at a paper bag
manufacturer, she designed a machine that would fold and glue together the
bags in a way that would make them foldable.
Needless to say, a trip to the grocery store would never be the
same—neither would Knight’s trip to Boston—where she was to have her
prototype cast into iron. While there, a stranger stole her patent and
filed it before she could. Luckily, the courts would eventually side with
3. JOSEPH GAYETTY - Commercial Toilet Paper
There was a time in the world when only one country had access to toilet
paper. And that country was China. (Everywhere else was a slightly more
miserable place.) Then Joseph Gayetty came into the picture.
Instead of having people continue to use mail catalogs, sponges on sticks
(as the Romans did), or even stones to “wipe the slate clean,” Gayetty
invented commercial toilet paper. Though, Gayetty was somewhat of an able
business man, and the toilet paper he came up with was a little different
than what we use today, he promoted the product in the wrong way. Selling
it in a bulk of 500 sheets, Gayetty marketed the innovation as a medical
treatment for hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids just didn’t have the advertising
pull he expected, so his business was ultimately a failure...but
thankfully, toilet paper lives on.
4. CLARENCE BIRDSEYE - Frozen Food
It’s fairly obvious that Clarence Birdseye had no hand in inventing
freezing. But the resourceful Brooklynite conjured up every other facet of
the frozen food industry, including frozen peas. Without the cool
techniques Birdseye developed, people wouldn’t have flocked to urban areas
like they've had since his invention.
Unlike most inventors, Birdseye spent most of his early life outside in
remote parts of the globe. It was when spending time with the Inuit people
in Newfoundland that he realized that freezing food could instantly
revolutionize the way humans eat. Birdseye went through some flops before
he could convince the American people to buy, and buy into, frozen
commodities. But once they did, their waistlines never looked back.
5. MARY ANDERSON - Windshield Wipers
If driving in inclement weather while sticking your head out the window
seems like a bad idea, it’s because it is. Mary Anderson saw the danger in
this and decided that cars needed a way to clear windshields from the
Though a brilliant idea, major automotive companies turned it down for its
impracticality. At the time, most cars could not go fast enough to even
require a windshield, and there was a concern that the blades would
distract drivers and cause accidents. Not a commercial success, her
version of the windshield wiper would be forgotten until after her patent
expired. Once that happened, owners of entrenched car companies descended
on her idea like vultures.
5.5. BUCKMINSTER FULLER - Dymaxion Concept Car
As the second president of Mensa, it’s quite an understatement to say that
Buckminster Fuller was a smart man. Apart from inventor, he was also an
author, designer, systems theorist, and―so we’ve heard―an all-around cool
Many of his good-intentioned inventions, including the Dymaxion Car,
ultimately proved to be bad realities. The Dymaxion was supposed to be an
early form of a green car, making Fuller one of the first
environmentalists. Its teardrop frame could seat upwards of 11 people, it
was able to run on 30 miles to the gallon, and fancifully, was made to
double as a flying machine to conserve building materials. The design for
the Dymaxion was so impressive it would influence manufactures like Fiat.
But, when in operation, it proved to be too bulky and dangerous to be a
The Gulf Dymaxion Car in front of the Chrysler Motors Building at the
Chicago World's Fair, 1933.
Fuller ultimately proved to be a very influential man, though, considering
his ideas for sustainable design permeate to this day. He would also turn
out being a survivor of World War I, which drove the onset of many
personal demons, including the turmoil caused by his daughter's premature
death. All of these challenges, however, were factors that led him to
pursue the expanse of his mind. And the world is better for it.
July 15, 2013 · 12:20 PM
Did You Know 07/15/2013 – These Women Invented………
1.Weaving Straw Into Hats.
Mary Kies was the first American woman to earn a patent in her own name.
In 1809, she developed a way of weaving straw into hats that was an
economic boon for New England. By receiving that piece of paper with her
name on it, Kies led the way for other female inventors to take credit for
In the late 18th century, a religious sect known as the Shakers emerged.
Shakers valued living communally (albeit celibately), equality between the
sexes and hard work. Tabitha Babbitt lived in a Shaker community in
Massachusetts and worked as a weaver, but in 1810, she came up with a way
to lighten the load of her brethren. She observed men cutting wood with a
pit saw, which is a two-handled saw that requires two men to pull it back
and forth. Though the saw is pulled both ways, it only cuts wood when it’s
pulled forward; the return stroke is useless. To Babbitt, that was wasted
energy, so she created a prototype of the circular saw that would go on to
be used in saw mills. She attached a circular blade to her spinning wheel
so that every movement of the saw produced results. Babbitt didn’t apply
for a patent for the circular saw she created.
3.Chocolate Chip Cookies
Ruth Wakefield had worked as a dietitian and food lecturer before buying
an old toll house outside of Boston with her husband. Traditionally, toll
houses were places weary travelers paid their road tolls, grabbed a quick
bite and fed their horses. Wakefield and her husband converted the toll
house into an inn with a restaurant. One day in 1930, Wakefield was baking
up a batch of Butter Drop Do cookies for her guests. The recipe called for
melted chocolate, but Wakefield had run out of baker’s chocolate. She took
a Nestle chocolate bar, crumbled it into pieces and threw it into her
batter, expecting the chocolate pieces to melt during baking. Instead, the
chocolate held its shape, and the chocolate chip cookie was born.
Bette Nesmith Graham was not a very good typist but very innovative
It was the 1950s, and the electric typewriter had just been introduced.
Secretaries often found themselves retyping entire pages because of one
tiny mistake, as the new model’s carbon ribbon made it difficult to
One day, Graham watched workers painting a holiday display on a bank
window. She noticed that when they made mistakes, they simply added
another layer of paint to cover them up, and she thought she could apply
that idea to her typing blunders. Using her blender, Graham mixed up a
water-based tempera paint with dye that matched her company’s stationary.
She took it to work and, using a fine watercolor brush, she was able to
quickly correct her errors. Soon, the other secretaries were clamoring for
the product, which Graham continued to produce in her kitchen. Graham was
fired from her job for spending so much time distributing what she called
“Mistake Out,” but in her unemployment she was able to tweak her mixture,
rename the product Liquid Paper and receive a patent in 1958.
5. The Square-bottomed Paper Bag
Margaret Knight didn’t invent the paper bag, but those first paper bags
weren’t all that useful for carrying things. In 1870, she created a wooden
machine that would cut, fold and glue the square bottoms to paper bags.
she was granted the patent for the device in 1871.
A Study of Women Inventors
Although Growing in Numbers, Today's Female Inventors Still Only
Account for Around 10% of the US Inventor Population
What name springs to mind when you say the phrase "famous female
inventor?" If you're having a tough time answering this, you are not
I became interested in this topic when I ran across a very curious
statistic. In 1980 only 1.7% of all the patent filings were filed by
women. After doing some research I found that the problem started long
Mary Dixon Kies
Mary Dixon Kies
The first U.S. patent was issued in 1809 to Mary Dixon Kies, a Connecticut
native who invented a process for weaving straw with silk or thread. First
Lady Dolley Madison publicly thanked her for boosting the nation's hat
industry. Unfortunately, this historic patent was destroyed in the great
Patent Office fire in 1836.
Until about 1840, only 20 other patents were issued to women, all related
to apparel, tools, cook stoves, and fire places. From 1855 to 1865, women
received an average of 10.1 patents per year while their male counterparts
received 3,767.4 patents. During the next decade, from 1865 to 1875 the
number of women-issued patents increased to 67.3 compared to men's
A rare exception to the social norm in 1843, Ada Lovelace wrote a
scientific paper that anticipated the development of computer software,
artificial intelligence and computer music. The daughter of the poet Lord
Byron, Lady Ada Lovelace was known as the "enchantress of numbers" who
collaborated with Charles Babbage, the inventor of the first mechanical
thinking-calculating machine. The Ada programming language was later named
after her. However, Ada didn't bother patenting any of her work because it
wasn't socially acceptable for most women to be filing patents.
By 1910 the number of women patents were still only 8,596, just 0.8 per
cent of the total patents issued in the United States. The reasons behind
this tend to fall into four broad categories: legal, economic, social, and
Legal rights of married women in the early-nineteenth century were
virtually non-existent. Along with women not being able to vote, many
women in the past were not allowed equal rights of property ownership,
Patents are a form of intellectual property, and for this reason many
women patented their inventions under their husband's or father's names.
A number of historians point to married women's inability to control their
own property as both a deterrent to invention by women and a distortion of
the true numbers.
One very early example is Sybilla Masters, the first female inventor in
recorded history, who invented a way for cleaning and curing the Indian
corn crops that the colonist in early America received as a gift from the
native peoples. Sybilla Masters's innovation allowed the corn to be
processed into many different food and cloth products. The patent was
issued in her husband Thomas' name by the British courts in 1715. Women
and minorities at that time had no rights to own patents.
While legal status may have slowed the number of inventions by women,
economic considerations encouraged it. Prospects for making money were a
big driver for women in the late 1800s. And for good reason. History tells
us that 75% of the patents issued to women between 1895 and 1900 were
Beulah Henry - “Lady Edison”
Beulah Henry - "Lady Edison"
Profits were part of the motivation for Beulah Henry of Memphis who
created about 110 inventions and held 49 patents. Beulah Henry was
considered one of the "Lady Edisons" for her prolific career in inventing.
Some of her inventions included the vacuum ice cream freezer (1912), an
umbrella with a variety different colored snap-on cloth covers (1924), the
first bobbinless sewing machine (1940), "Protograph" - worked with a
manual typewriter to make four copies of a document (1932),
"Continuously-attached Envelopes" for mass mailings (1952), "Dolly Dips"
soap-filled sponges for children (1929), "Miss Illusion" doll with eyes
that could change color and close (1935).
The social appeal for women to become inventors at that time was best
expressed when Scientific American tried to assure them "that there was
nothing inherently unladylike about the process of invention. Like novel
writing, it could be done in the parlor at home, and did not require
traffic in the factory or marketplace."
The social environment for women inventors began to change with the 1876
Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, a World Fair-like event held to
celebrate the progress of the century-old United States. The leaders of
early feminist and women's suffrage movements aggressively lobbied for the
inclusion of a woman's showcase in the exposition. As a result, the
Centennial Women's Executive Committee was established, and a separate
Woman's Pavilion erected. Scores of women inventors either with patents or
with patents pending displayed their inventions
Examples of famous women inventors throughout history:
Dishwasher - In 1886, Josephine Cochran proclaimed in disgust "If nobody
else is going to invent a i, I'll do it myself." And she did, Josephine
Cochran invented the first practical (did the job) dishwasher. Josephine
Cochran had expected the public to welcome the new invention, which she
unveiled at the 1893, World\'s Fair, but only the hotels and large
restaurants bought her ideas. It was not until the 1950s, that dishwashers
caught on with the general public.
Windshield Wiper - Even before Henry Ford started manufacturing his Model
A, Mary Anderson was granted her first patent for a window cleaning device
in November of 1903. Her invention could clean snow, rain, or sleet from a
windshield by using a handle inside the car. Her goal was to improve
driver vision during stormy weather. In 1915 the Mary Anderson ‘windshield
wiper' became standard issue on all cars.
Mary Phelps Jacob
Mary Phelps Jacob
Brassiere - The first modern brassiere to receive a patent was one
invented by New York socialite, Mary Phelps Jacob in 1913. At that time,
the only socially acceptable undergarment was a corset stiffened with
whale bones. The invention of the brassiere eventually led to the demise
of the often masochistic corset.
Disposable Diapers - In 1950, Marion Donovan was a young mother in the
post-war baby boom era. She came from a family of inventors and inherited
the inventing 'gene'. Unhappy with leaky, cloth diapers that had to be
washed, she first invented the 'Boater', a plastic covering for cloth
diapers first made from a shower curtain. Later, using disposable
absorbent material and combining it with her Boater design, Marion Donovan
created the first convenient disposable diaper. Companies she presented it
to told her that her product would be too expansive to produce, so she
went into business for herself. A few years later, she was able to sell
her company for $1 million.
Scotchgard - Patsy Sherman was a 3M research chemist assigned to work on
fluorochemical polymers. Patsy Sherman was one of very few women chemists
to work for a major corporation when she was hired by 3M in 1952. Her work
was an essential part of the introduction of 3M's first stain repellent
and soil release textile treatments which have grown into an entire family
of products known as Scotchgard ® protectors.
Kevlar - Stephanie Kwolek's research with high performance chemical
compounds for the DuPont Company led to the development of a synthetic
material called Kevlar which is five times stronger than the same weight
of steel. Kevlar, patented by Kwolek in 1966, does not rust nor corrode
and is extremely lightweight.
In the area of education, early American women were often prevented from
receiving the higher education necessary for inventing. The story of Grace
McDermut at the Colorado School of Mines shows the typical uphill battle
women faced a century ago. She enrolled as the only woman in the freshman
class of 1899-1900 in the company of 350 male students.
While women have been making inroads into education fields in most
professions, the number of female science and engineering majors, the
education most closely associated with inventors, are still lacking.
In 2004 the Stanford School of Engineering awarded 267 of it's 1,161
Master's degrees and Ph.D's to women - 23%. According to the American
Society for Engineering Education, Stanford is the best in the nation
where the national average is 21%.
So where are we today? The latest statistics from the US Patent Trademark
Office show that in 2002, a total of 10.9% of all patents had a female
listed as an inventor. This figure is somewhat deceptive because it
includes mixed gender co-inventors. As an example, a patent with four men
and one woman named as co-inventors is counted as part of this figure.
While most of the deterrents for women inventors have been gradually
disappearing, the numbers have been slow to change.
The National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio now has over 200
inventors who have been inducted, of which only 6 are women.
The US Patent Trademark Office has been working hard to balance the number
of female patent examiners which now stands at 28.37% of the total patent
In all of US society, the world of inventors demonstrates one of the
greatest imbalances between genders. In a country where the number of
patent filings is setting new records every year, women continue to
struggle in their quest to achieve parity. While some may view this as a
problem, other view this as "just the way it is".
From my perspective, I would like to applaud all inventors. Our future
depends heavily on the often thankless work they are doing. And for that I
would personally like to say "thank you".
By Thomas Frey
Top 10 greatest inventors of all time In History
On Thursday, April 10, 2014 Curiosity Fact History Our World People
Have you ever wondered what were the most important inventors in history?
If you don't know these, you can't consider you as people informed about
the world and cultured! Have fun everyone, guys!
Top 10 greatest inventors of all time In History
9. Thomas Edison
Not only ... light bulbs! Thomas Alva Edison gave themselves to do much
more than you think: in addition to inventing the incandescent light bulb,
on his behalf there are other 1093 patents! The phonograph is an
invention, as well as the Telegraph key. One of his most absurd inventions
was a painful tattoo machine, but also the talking doll was not so
ordinary, and you might as well add the machine to catch the ghosts!
8. Steve Jobs
Couldn't they put him: Steve Jobs. His inventions, perhaps, will not be as
important as other mentioned in this ranking, but it is true that have
revolutionized the world and the everyday life of the people. Apple,
American Society of which he was co-founder, has made the iPhone — one of
the first smartphone in the world, a real "must" Nowadays, the iPad, the
first tablet ever made, and the Mac, one of the first computer. Hats off,
7. Henry Ford
Hearing the name of Henry Ford, the first thing that may come to mind is
the American automaker, Ford, of which he was the founder. Despite this,
many of you do not know that besides having started this company, he was
also the inventor of the Assembly line, thanks to which it is possible, as
most of you know, reduce both the costs and time of production!
6. George Washington Carver
None of you ever heard of George Washington ... Carver "? He was a pioneer
of agriculture, was able to create countless products from simple crops
like peanuts, walnuts, yams, etc. Also managed to develop various methods
for crop rotation, which contributed to increase the efficiency of the
Agriculture of the peoples of the South, improving their health and diet.
And to think that before I became an inventor, was a slave!
5. Grace Hopper
Grace Hopper was an American computer science, who developed the first
compiler in 1952: without it, programmers had to write long instructions
into binary code (machine language) for any new piece of software. To save
time and errors, so the compiler has been a real revolution. The Hopper
also invented COBOL — the first family language that can be used to write
business programs, language in use today.
4. Hedy Lamarr
Do you remember Hedy Lamarr, — "the most beautiful woman in the cinema"?
What many of you don't know is that his life was really fantastic: being a
brilliant student of engineering, managed to invent something that would
stay in the history, which is an encryption of the information system that
is now the basis of operation of mobile and wireless technology!
3. Dean Kamen
A real genius, which became multimillionaire thanks to this great
invention: the Segway, which means that you can see in the picture. It is
a means of transportation on two wheels, which became a real must at the
beginning of the Millennium. What will interest you to know is that now
Kamen lives in an island that has become independent from the United
States, with its electrical system which is able to power thanks to solar
batteries and wind farms!
2. Tim Berners-Lee
He is the inventor of the internet, or rather of the "World Wide Web".
Born in London, Tim currently lives in Boston and teaches at MIT. Is
considered one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, and
in 2004 was even named "Knight" by Queen Elizabeth in person!
1. Nikola Tesla
Tesla was born in the middle of the technological revolution of
electricity: it was a kind of genius, much to suggest that he came from
the future. He invented the radar, x-rays, the speaker, hydropower, the AC
and radio astronomy!