Invitation of A Study of U.S.AMulti-racial Society and Rich Culinary CultureGreat Nature and Outdoor ActivitiesSports SupremacyFilms, TVs and LiberalismArts of Music and Stage Performance

Politics, US Constitution, and DemocracyAmerican Media and Opinion MakersEducation and Science as ReligionEconomic Giant and IndustriesUS Cities and Mass-transportationsMighty Military and Technological Innovation

Young Entrepreneurs and Silicon ValleyFashion Industry and Gay PowerGeniuses, Inventors, and SocietyUS Literature and Americans in LiteratureLaw-governed States、Law-enforcers, and CrimesHomeless, Disabilities and Welfare system






アメリカでの便利屋(旧サイト)はhttp://benriyausa.comへ メークオーバーして移転。





Chapter Fourteen: Geniuses, Inventors, and Society

Invention and innovation

日本とアメリカのビジネス飛び級 制度/Grade Class Assigned by Ability

天才教育/Education For High IQ or Talented Students


Jerry and his wife Dorothy – a successful interior designer and strong advocate for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) education – and their family believed that invention and innovation were essential to American economic success and vitality. The Lemelsons realized that in order for the US to remain a world leader in economic growth and technology there was a great need to place a strong emphasis on invention and innovation.

9. Edwin Land

Connecticut physicist and inventor Edwin Land didn’t invent photography, of course, but he invented or perfected almost everything else having to do with it. While a freshman at Harvard University in 1926, he developed a new kind of polarizer by aligning and embedding crystals in a plastic sheet, which he called Polaroid. Later, joined by other young scientists, he applied the polarizing principle to light filters, optical devices, and motion picture processes and founded the Polaroid Corporation in the process. Holder of no fewer than 535 U.S. Patents, Land is probably best known for developing the first self-developing camera, making it possible to embarrass your friends on the spot rather than having to wait for the film to come back from the drug store before humiliating them.


6. Jerome “Jerry” Hal Lemelson

What, you’ve never heard of Jerome Lemelson? Well, you have now, for he was one of the most prolific inventors in history, with 605 patents to his credit. What did he invent? Things like automated warehouses, industrial robots, cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders, camcorders and the magnetic tape drive used in Sony’s Walkman tape players. Lemelson also filed patents in the fields of medical instrumentation, cancer detection and treatment, diamond coating technologies, and consumer electronics and television. He was probably best known, however, as a tireless advocate for the rights of independent inventors, which made him a controversial and even much loathed figure by patent attorneys and some of the larger companies whose noses he tweaked, but a champion of the independent inventor’s community.


5. George Westinghouse

Though it was Edison that got most of the credit, it’s hard to argue that in many ways Westinghouse’s contributions were almost as great as Edison’s. Certainly it was his electrical system, which used alternating current based (a result of the work of Nikola Tesla, by the way), that ultimately prevailed over Edison’s insistence on direct current and paved the way for the modern power grid. But Westinghouse wasn’t a one-hit wonder; before he bested Edison with his AC power system, he invented the railway air brake, which did much to improve the safety of the American railway system. Like Edison, he also had an experimental streak which induced him play around with a perpetual motion machine. It didn’t quite work, of course (largely due to the fact that such a machine would violate the laws of physics) but you couldn’t blame him for trying. In any case, a prolific inventor and engineer with 361 patents to his credit, Westinghouse easily rounds out the top five candidates.

4. Alexander Graham Bell

You don’t often see the inventor of the telephone finish this high on such a list, but when one looks at the accomplishments the man was responsible for during his seventy five years on earth, it seems impossible not to include him in the top five. Though most famous for the telephone (which came about as a result of his early work with the deaf) not many people know he also invented devices that did everything from locate icebergs and detect minor hearing problems (an audiometer) to finding hidden treasure (he invented the modern metal detector). He even tried his hand at eugenics, built hydrofoils and worked on early airplanes, demonstrating quite a range of interests. And that copy of National Geographic Magazine you’ve been meaning to get around to one of these days? Thank Mister Bell for that as well, for he was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Foundation way back in 1888. Quite a résumé by any standard, if you ask me.

3. Thomas Edison

What? The most prolific inventor in modern history, with over a thousand patents to his credit, not number one? The inventor of the light bulb, the phonograph, the motion picture camera and the man who electrified New York City—literally—not top dog? Impossible! Actually, while Edison was a gifted man, many of his better known inventions were developed by others working for him or in collaboration with an entire design team, making him responsible for their development rather than their chief inventor. He also had a nasty tendency to renege on contracts and claim credit for other people’s work, but then nobody is perfect. However, even if he wasn’t personally responsible for everything that came out of his shop at Menlo Park and was at time integrity challenged, he was the master of R & D and oversaw the creation and production of many of the great inventions of the nineteenth century, earning him, if not the number one spot, at least a top five showing.

2. Nikola Tesla

Though largely unknown during his lifetime and a man who died in relative obscurity (and as something of a reclusive mad scientist at that), the brilliant Serb—who is enjoying a resurgence in popularity lately—was probably more responsible for the birth of commercial electricity than any man in history. While Tesla’s patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electric power systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the AC motor which helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution, he is probably best known for his work in the field of electromagnetism. He also contributed in varying degrees to the science of robotics, laid the foundation for the development of remote control, radar, and computer science, and even helped in the expansion of ballistics, nuclear physics, and theoretical physics. Some people also believe he developed anti-gravity, teleportation, and even death rays, but that’s a bit more difficult to substantiate. In any case, with 111 patents to his credit, he was genuinely one of the finest and most innovative minds in history whose recognition has been long in coming.



We owe much of our standard of living to great entrepreneurs and inventors. These folks do more to make life easier and better than anything else. Not that laws and labor contracts and epic court decisions have been insignificant, but inventions are what has gotten us out of the mud and away from the open flame, and the mystery disease that took the lives of our children. Advances in travel and communication have made it harder for injustice to hide and thrive and have given the individual more personal freedom. It will be harder in the future for authority figures and wrongdoers to hide anything they do. Our economy will be lifted out of its current holding pattern only by finding better ways of doing things, especially in the field of energy production, storage, consumption, etc. and in its effect on transportation. We will also need to restore the work ethic and quit expecting someone to give us what we are too lazy to work for. Here a few examples we can learn from.

Nikolai Tesla. Genius in the field of electricity. Steve Jobs, the Apple genius. I love my iphone.

Dr. Michael DeBakey, Cardiologist who pioneered bypass surgery. How many lives has this procedure saved? Clarence Birdseye. Frozen foods. We take it for granted today. How could a restaurant or a grocery store operate without it? Dr. Jonas Salk found the cure for polio. I remember taking the sugar cubes. Henry Ford, pioneer of the auto. I know he had his own private police force to beat up striking workers, but without Ford there may never have been cars and certainly no good jobs on the assembly line. I love Walter Reuther too, but Ford deserves a great deal of credit. Remember he competed with General Motors and last time I looked his company is comparing favorably there.

George Westinghouse. Another genius inventor. Howard Hughes. His father invented the rotary drill bit and son advanced aviation technology and had the bold vision to move forward even in the face of those who wanted him out of the picture. He made a movie or two while he was at it. Charles Goodyear. The vulcanization of rubber. Very little doesn’t move on rubber covered wheels. Even airplanes have to have them to take off and land.

Robert Goddard. The first significant rocket engineer. All rocket science is built on his foundation. Albert Einstein. Mathematician, scientist, was head and shoulders above everyone else in his time. I’m not sure we have caught up to him yet. 

Thomas Alva Edison. The phonograph. What would the music business be without recorded sound???

The light bulb, and many other inventions that are useful to the average person came from his genius. A big Wado (thanks).

Alexander Graham Bell gave us the telephone. I have lived without one at times but it was pretty inconvenient. I still regret the breakup of AT&T. It seemed less confusing when we had one phone company to hate. It kept us united as a nation. But the telephone saves a lot of time. And as great as email is, there is no substitute for live two way conversation.

5.5 Obscure Inventions and the People Who Made Them
Today would've marked the 150th birthday of Henry Ford. Like with the automobile, Ford wasn’t the originator of his last name, but by the time he passed away in 1947, he had made both into icons of industry.
Bogar Alonso Jul 30, 2013

Today would've marked the 150th birthday of Henry Ford. Like with the automobile, Ford wasn’t the originator of his last name, but by the time he passed away in 1947, he had made both into icons of industry. From mostly humble beginnings, his fascination for how things work took him to Detroit where he labored as an engineer for Edison Electric Illuminating Company. While there, a different kind of bulb turned on for him: He would try his hand at building a horseless carriage. Though his endeavor would eventually prove triumphant, it didn’t come without some bumps in the road. After building two successful car models, it would take just as many failed companies to eventually stumble upon the one we know now: the Ford Motor Company.

Ford Motor would become the world’s biggest car company, but not without its owner’s undying vision of efficiency, innovation―and some would argue―cruelty. Even with his flaws, however, Henry Ford remains an important figure in American history, automotive legacy, and late-night drive-thrus.

To commemorate Ford's 150th birthday, we’ve chosen a group of inventors who've also given us life-changing inventions but unlike Ford, have flown under our collective radar. Here are their inventions and the stories of their lives. (Also included is a bonus invention, the .5 in the equation: a contraption that never quite took off).

1. THOMAS YOUNG - Contact Lenses

With a name far less cooler than that of Leonardo da Vinci, Archimedes, or Nikola Tesla, Thomas Young is a forgotten father of invention. But his life was far from being coma-inducing.

At the age of two, Young could already read, with the ability to handle a complicated language like Latin by the tender age of six. His spirited smarts allowed him to take Rene Descartes' rudimentary template for contact lenses―glass tubes that would extend from a person’s cornea―and transform them into liquid-filled contraptions that would simply cup the eye.

When not designing a precursor to the modern-day contact lens, Young was busy serving the world in countless ways. He helped reference 400 languages and their grammar systems, devised a mathematical function to describe an object’s elasticity, and came up with the wave theory of light.

Calling him a genius might have been an understatement to a man of his intellect.

2. MARGARET E. KNIGHT - The Foldable Paper Bag

Photo courtesy of

In Margaret E. Knight’s era, most American women were seen as little more than textile workers. Knight herself faced some of that prejudice, but she never let it keep her from putting her analytical mind to good use.
Advertisement — Continue reading below

From a modest background, Knight spent a good portion of her life working alongside other factory girls. But whenever there was a need for improvement in a factory’s machinery, she would look for ways to address the problem with a handy invention. While working at a paper bag manufacturer, she designed a machine that would fold and glue together the bags in a way that would make them foldable.

Needless to say, a trip to the grocery store would never be the same—neither would Knight’s trip to Boston—where she was to have her prototype cast into iron. While there, a stranger stole her patent and filed it before she could. Luckily, the courts would eventually side with her.

3. JOSEPH GAYETTY - Commercial Toilet Paper

There was a time in the world when only one country had access to toilet paper. And that country was China. (Everywhere else was a slightly more miserable place.) Then Joseph Gayetty came into the picture.

Instead of having people continue to use mail catalogs, sponges on sticks (as the Romans did), or even stones to “wipe the slate clean,” Gayetty invented commercial toilet paper. Though, Gayetty was somewhat of an able business man, and the toilet paper he came up with was a little different than what we use today, he promoted the product in the wrong way. Selling it in a bulk of 500 sheets, Gayetty marketed the innovation as a medical treatment for hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids just didn’t have the advertising pull he expected, so his business was ultimately a failure...but thankfully, toilet paper lives on.


It’s fairly obvious that Clarence Birdseye had no hand in inventing freezing. But the resourceful Brooklynite conjured up every other facet of the frozen food industry, including frozen peas. Without the cool techniques Birdseye developed, people wouldn’t have flocked to urban areas like they've had since his invention.

Unlike most inventors, Birdseye spent most of his early life outside in remote parts of the globe. It was when spending time with the Inuit people in Newfoundland that he realized that freezing food could instantly revolutionize the way humans eat. Birdseye went through some flops before he could convince the American people to buy, and buy into, frozen commodities. But once they did, their waistlines never looked back.

5. MARY ANDERSON - Windshield Wipers

If driving in inclement weather while sticking your head out the window seems like a bad idea, it’s because it is. Mary Anderson saw the danger in this and decided that cars needed a way to clear windshields from the inside.

Though a brilliant idea, major automotive companies turned it down for its impracticality. At the time, most cars could not go fast enough to even require a windshield, and there was a concern that the blades would distract drivers and cause accidents. Not a commercial success, her version of the windshield wiper would be forgotten until after her patent expired. Once that happened, owners of entrenched car companies descended on her idea like vultures.

5.5. BUCKMINSTER FULLER - Dymaxion Concept Car

As the second president of Mensa, it’s quite an understatement to say that Buckminster Fuller was a smart man. Apart from inventor, he was also an author, designer, systems theorist, and―so we’ve heard―an all-around cool dude.

Many of his good-intentioned inventions, including the Dymaxion Car, ultimately proved to be bad realities. The Dymaxion was supposed to be an early form of a green car, making Fuller one of the first environmentalists. Its teardrop frame could seat upwards of 11 people, it was able to run on 30 miles to the gallon, and fancifully, was made to double as a flying machine to conserve building materials. The design for the Dymaxion was so impressive it would influence manufactures like Fiat. But, when in operation, it proved to be too bulky and dangerous to be a worthy invention.

The Gulf Dymaxion Car in front of the Chrysler Motors Building at the Chicago World's Fair, 1933.

Fuller ultimately proved to be a very influential man, though, considering his ideas for sustainable design permeate to this day. He would also turn out being a survivor of World War I, which drove the onset of many personal demons, including the turmoil caused by his daughter's premature death. All of these challenges, however, were factors that led him to pursue the expanse of his mind. And the world is better for it.
 July 15, 2013 · 12:20 PM
Did You Know 07/15/2013 – These Women Invented………

1.Weaving Straw Into Hats.
Mary Kies was the first American woman to earn a patent in her own name. In 1809, she developed a way of weaving straw into hats that was an economic boon for New England. By receiving that piece of paper with her name on it, Kies led the way for other female inventors to take credit for their ideas.

2.Circular Saw

In the late 18th century, a religious sect known as the Shakers emerged. Shakers valued living communally (albeit celibately), equality between the sexes and hard work. Tabitha Babbitt lived in a Shaker community in Massachusetts and worked as a weaver, but in 1810, she came up with a way to lighten the load of her brethren. She observed men cutting wood with a pit saw, which is a two-handled saw that requires two men to pull it back and forth. Though the saw is pulled both ways, it only cuts wood when it’s pulled forward; the return stroke is useless. To Babbitt, that was wasted energy, so she created a prototype of the circular saw that would go on to be used in saw mills. She attached a circular blade to her spinning wheel so that every movement of the saw produced results. Babbitt didn’t apply for a patent for the circular saw she created.

3.Chocolate Chip Cookies
Ruth Wakefield had worked as a dietitian and food lecturer before buying an old toll house outside of Boston with her husband. Traditionally, toll houses were places weary travelers paid their road tolls, grabbed a quick bite and fed their horses. Wakefield and her husband converted the toll house into an inn with a restaurant. One day in 1930, Wakefield was baking up a batch of Butter Drop Do cookies for her guests. The recipe called for melted chocolate, but Wakefield had run out of baker’s chocolate. She took a Nestle chocolate bar, crumbled it into pieces and threw it into her batter, expecting the chocolate pieces to melt during baking. Instead, the chocolate held its shape, and the chocolate chip cookie was born.

4.Liquid Paper
Bette Nesmith Graham was not a very good typist but very innovative
It was the 1950s, and the electric typewriter had just been introduced. Secretaries often found themselves retyping entire pages because of one tiny mistake, as the new model’s carbon ribbon made it difficult to correct errors.
One day, Graham watched workers painting a holiday display on a bank window. She noticed that when they made mistakes, they simply added another layer of paint to cover them up, and she thought she could apply that idea to her typing blunders. Using her blender, Graham mixed up a water-based tempera paint with dye that matched her company’s stationary. She took it to work and, using a fine watercolor brush, she was able to quickly correct her errors. Soon, the other secretaries were clamoring for the product, which Graham continued to produce in her kitchen. Graham was fired from her job for spending so much time distributing what she called “Mistake Out,” but in her unemployment she was able to tweak her mixture, rename the product Liquid Paper and receive a patent in 1958.

5. The Square-bottomed Paper Bag
Margaret Knight didn’t invent the paper bag, but those first paper bags weren’t all that useful for carrying things. In 1870, she created a wooden machine that would cut, fold and glue the square bottoms to paper bags.
she was granted the patent for the device in 1871.
A Study of Women Inventors

Although Growing in Numbers, Today's Female Inventors Still Only
Account for Around 10% of the US Inventor Population

What name springs to mind when you say the phrase "famous female inventor?" If you're having a tough time answering this, you are not alone.

I became interested in this topic when I ran across a very curious statistic. In 1980 only 1.7% of all the patent filings were filed by women. After doing some research I found that the problem started long before that.

Mary Dixon Kies

Mary Dixon Kies

The first U.S. patent was issued in 1809 to Mary Dixon Kies, a Connecticut native who invented a process for weaving straw with silk or thread. First Lady Dolley Madison publicly thanked her for boosting the nation's hat industry. Unfortunately, this historic patent was destroyed in the great Patent Office fire in 1836.

Until about 1840, only 20 other patents were issued to women, all related to apparel, tools, cook stoves, and fire places. From 1855 to 1865, women received an average of 10.1 patents per year while their male counterparts received 3,767.4 patents. During the next decade, from 1865 to 1875 the number of women-issued patents increased to 67.3 compared to men's 11,918.4 patents.

Ada Lovelace

Ada Lovelace

A rare exception to the social norm in 1843, Ada Lovelace wrote a scientific paper that anticipated the development of computer software, artificial intelligence and computer music. The daughter of the poet Lord Byron, Lady Ada Lovelace was known as the "enchantress of numbers" who collaborated with Charles Babbage, the inventor of the first mechanical thinking-calculating machine. The Ada programming language was later named after her. However, Ada didn't bother patenting any of her work because it wasn't socially acceptable for most women to be filing patents.

By 1910 the number of women patents were still only 8,596, just 0.8 per cent of the total patents issued in the United States. The reasons behind this tend to fall into four broad categories: legal, economic, social, and education.

Legal rights of married women in the early-nineteenth century were virtually non-existent. Along with women not being able to vote, many women in the past were not allowed equal rights of property ownership, Patents are a form of intellectual property, and for this reason many women patented their inventions under their husband's or father's names.

A number of historians point to married women's inability to control their own property as both a deterrent to invention by women and a distortion of the true numbers.

One very early example is Sybilla Masters, the first female inventor in recorded history, who invented a way for cleaning and curing the Indian corn crops that the colonist in early America received as a gift from the native peoples. Sybilla Masters's innovation allowed the corn to be processed into many different food and cloth products. The patent was issued in her husband Thomas' name by the British courts in 1715. Women and minorities at that time had no rights to own patents.

While legal status may have slowed the number of inventions by women, economic considerations encouraged it. Prospects for making money were a big driver for women in the late 1800s. And for good reason. History tells us that 75% of the patents issued to women between 1895 and 1900 were profitable.

Beulah Henry - “Lady Edison”

Beulah Henry - "Lady Edison"

Profits were part of the motivation for Beulah Henry of Memphis who created about 110 inventions and held 49 patents. Beulah Henry was considered one of the "Lady Edisons" for her prolific career in inventing. Some of her inventions included the vacuum ice cream freezer (1912), an umbrella with a variety different colored snap-on cloth covers (1924), the first bobbinless sewing machine (1940), "Protograph" - worked with a manual typewriter to make four copies of a document (1932), "Continuously-attached Envelopes" for mass mailings (1952), "Dolly Dips" soap-filled sponges for children (1929), "Miss Illusion" doll with eyes that could change color and close (1935).

The social appeal for women to become inventors at that time was best expressed when Scientific American tried to assure them "that there was nothing inherently unladylike about the process of invention. Like novel writing, it could be done in the parlor at home, and did not require traffic in the factory or marketplace."

The social environment for women inventors began to change with the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, a World Fair-like event held to celebrate the progress of the century-old United States. The leaders of early feminist and women's suffrage movements aggressively lobbied for the inclusion of a woman's showcase in the exposition. As a result, the Centennial Women's Executive Committee was established, and a separate Woman's Pavilion erected. Scores of women inventors either with patents or with patents pending displayed their inventions

Examples of famous women inventors throughout history:

Josephine Cochran

Josephine Cochran

Dishwasher - In 1886, Josephine Cochran proclaimed in disgust "If nobody else is going to invent a i, I'll do it myself." And she did, Josephine Cochran invented the first practical (did the job) dishwasher. Josephine Cochran had expected the public to welcome the new invention, which she unveiled at the 1893, World\'s Fair, but only the hotels and large restaurants bought her ideas. It was not until the 1950s, that dishwashers caught on with the general public.

Mary Anderson

Mary Anderson

Windshield Wiper - Even before Henry Ford started manufacturing his Model A, Mary Anderson was granted her first patent for a window cleaning device in November of 1903. Her invention could clean snow, rain, or sleet from a windshield by using a handle inside the car. Her goal was to improve driver vision during stormy weather. In 1915 the Mary Anderson ‘windshield wiper' became standard issue on all cars.

Mary Phelps Jacob

Mary Phelps Jacob

Brassiere - The first modern brassiere to receive a patent was one invented by New York socialite, Mary Phelps Jacob in 1913. At that time, the only socially acceptable undergarment was a corset stiffened with whale bones. The invention of the brassiere eventually led to the demise of the often masochistic corset.

Marion Donovan

Marion Donovan

Disposable Diapers - In 1950, Marion Donovan was a young mother in the post-war baby boom era. She came from a family of inventors and inherited the inventing 'gene'. Unhappy with leaky, cloth diapers that had to be washed, she first invented the 'Boater', a plastic covering for cloth diapers first made from a shower curtain. Later, using disposable absorbent material and combining it with her Boater design, Marion Donovan created the first convenient disposable diaper. Companies she presented it to told her that her product would be too expansive to produce, so she went into business for herself. A few years later, she was able to sell her company for $1 million.

Patsy Sherman

Patsy Sherman

Scotchgard - Patsy Sherman was a 3M research chemist assigned to work on fluorochemical polymers. Patsy Sherman was one of very few women chemists to work for a major corporation when she was hired by 3M in 1952. Her work was an essential part of the introduction of 3M's first stain repellent and soil release textile treatments which have grown into an entire family of products known as Scotchgard ® protectors.

Stephanie Kwolek

Stephanie Kwolek

Kevlar - Stephanie Kwolek's research with high performance chemical compounds for the DuPont Company led to the development of a synthetic material called Kevlar which is five times stronger than the same weight of steel. Kevlar, patented by Kwolek in 1966, does not rust nor corrode and is extremely lightweight.

In the area of education, early American women were often prevented from receiving the higher education necessary for inventing. The story of Grace McDermut at the Colorado School of Mines shows the typical uphill battle women faced a century ago. She enrolled as the only woman in the freshman class of 1899-1900 in the company of 350 male students.

While women have been making inroads into education fields in most professions, the number of female science and engineering majors, the education most closely associated with inventors, are still lacking.

In 2004 the Stanford School of Engineering awarded 267 of it's 1,161 Master's degrees and Ph.D's to women - 23%. According to the American Society for Engineering Education, Stanford is the best in the nation where the national average is 21%.

So where are we today? The latest statistics from the US Patent Trademark Office show that in 2002, a total of 10.9% of all patents had a female listed as an inventor. This figure is somewhat deceptive because it includes mixed gender co-inventors. As an example, a patent with four men and one woman named as co-inventors is counted as part of this figure.

While most of the deterrents for women inventors have been gradually disappearing, the numbers have been slow to change.

The National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio now has over 200 inventors who have been inducted, of which only 6 are women.

The US Patent Trademark Office has been working hard to balance the number of female patent examiners which now stands at 28.37% of the total patent examiner population.

In all of US society, the world of inventors demonstrates one of the greatest imbalances between genders. In a country where the number of patent filings is setting new records every year, women continue to struggle in their quest to achieve parity. While some may view this as a problem, other view this as "just the way it is".

From my perspective, I would like to applaud all inventors. Our future depends heavily on the often thankless work they are doing. And for that I would personally like to say "thank you".

By Thomas Frey
 Top 10 greatest inventors of all time In History
On Thursday, April 10, 2014 Curiosity Fact History Our World People Science top10
Have you ever wondered what were the most important inventors in history? If you don't know these, you can't consider you as people informed about the world and cultured! Have fun everyone, guys!

Top 10 greatest inventors of all time In History

9. Thomas Edison

Not only ... light bulbs! Thomas Alva Edison gave themselves to do much more than you think: in addition to inventing the incandescent light bulb, on his behalf there are other 1093 patents! The phonograph is an invention, as well as the Telegraph key. One of his most absurd inventions was a painful tattoo machine, but also the talking doll was not so ordinary, and you might as well add the machine to catch the ghosts!

8. Steve Jobs

Couldn't they put him: Steve Jobs. His inventions, perhaps, will not be as important as other mentioned in this ranking, but it is true that have revolutionized the world and the everyday life of the people. Apple, American Society of which he was co-founder, has made the iPhone — one of the first smartphone in the world, a real "must" Nowadays, the iPad, the first tablet ever made, and the Mac, one of the first computer. Hats off, Steve!

7. Henry Ford

Hearing the name of Henry Ford, the first thing that may come to mind is the American automaker, Ford, of which he was the founder. Despite this, many of you do not know that besides having started this company, he was also the inventor of the Assembly line, thanks to which it is possible, as most of you know, reduce both the costs and time of production!

6. George Washington Carver

None of you ever heard of George Washington ... Carver "? He was a pioneer of agriculture, was able to create countless products from simple crops like peanuts, walnuts, yams, etc. Also managed to develop various methods for crop rotation, which contributed to increase the efficiency of the Agriculture of the peoples of the South, improving their health and diet. And to think that before I became an inventor, was a slave!

5. Grace Hopper

Grace Hopper was an American computer science, who developed the first compiler in 1952: without it, programmers had to write long instructions into binary code (machine language) for any new piece of software. To save time and errors, so the compiler has been a real revolution. The Hopper also invented COBOL — the first family language that can be used to write business programs, language in use today.

4. Hedy Lamarr

Do you remember Hedy Lamarr, — "the most beautiful woman in the cinema"? What many of you don't know is that his life was really fantastic: being a brilliant student of engineering, managed to invent something that would stay in the history, which is an encryption of the information system that is now the basis of operation of mobile and wireless technology!

3. Dean Kamen

A real genius, which became multimillionaire thanks to this great invention: the Segway, which means that you can see in the picture. It is a means of transportation on two wheels, which became a real must at the beginning of the Millennium. What will interest you to know is that now Kamen lives in an island that has become independent from the United States, with its electrical system which is able to power thanks to solar batteries and wind farms!

2. Tim Berners-Lee

He is the inventor of the internet, or rather of the "World Wide Web". Born in London, Tim currently lives in Boston and teaches at MIT. Is considered one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, and in 2004 was even named "Knight" by Queen Elizabeth in person!

1. Nikola Tesla

Tesla was born in the middle of the technological revolution of electricity: it was a kind of genius, much to suggest that he came from the future. He invented the radar, x-rays, the speaker, hydropower, the AC and radio astronomy!